Assessment of Intersex
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Intersex Surgery: Cloacal Repair

Cloacal repair is one of the most complex intersex surgery.

Bladder exstrophy or in more severe case cloacal exstrophy refers to major birth defect which involves the inadequacy of closure and incompleteness of midline fusion of multiple pelvic and the perineal organs as well as the front of the pelvis and lower abdominal wall.

The penis and the scrotum are often widely separated (the two embryonic parts joined). In this case the penis often cannot be salvaged, although the testes can be retained. Surgeon’s repair will involve closure of the bladder, closure of the anterior abdominal wall, colostomy (temporary or permanent) with reconstruction of the rectum. In cases where the halves of the phallus cannot be joined it will be removed.


Potential Problems

Surgery of more severe cases of cloacal exstrophy is extensive and usually conducted at various stages. There can be a variety of problems and complication that can occur including:

  • Long-term colostomy or vesicostomy.
  • Dysfunctional of the penis.
  • Extensive scarring especially in the lower torso.


Other masculinizing intersex surgery:

Orchiopexy : Hypospadias : Urogenital Closure
Gonadectomy : Chordee release : Phalloplasty
Hysterectomy : Testicular Protheses
Penile augmentation surgery : Concealed penis


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